Does an Insurance Company Need to Deny a Claim to be Liable for Bad Faith Damages? You May Be Surprised to Learn the Answer is "No."

Every insurance contract is accompanied by an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing, meaning that the insurer cannot “unfairly frustrate” or unreasonably “deprive” the insured of the benefits of the insurance contract. This implied covenant applies to all types of insurance policies, including disability insurance, life insurance, health/medical insurance, long-term care insurance, accidental death and dismemberment insurance, and homeowners insurance. If the insurer unreasonably or without proper cause refuses to pay a benefit due under in insurance policy, the insurer may have acted in “bad faith.” This may allow an insured to collect extra-contractual damages, such as emotional distress damages, attorney’s fees and punitive damages. Typically, bad faith allegations follow a decision by the insurance company to deny a valid claim for benefits.

However, a recent Central District of California decision confirmed that a bad faith claim can be asserted even in the absence of a claim denial, if the insured can assert that any benefit of the policy was withheld by the insurance company. A bad faith claim does not necessarily only follow the denial of a claim. An insurer’s decision to unreasonably withhold anything of value regarding the insurance policy can be an act of bad faith.

That case, EFG Bank AG, Cayman Branch v. Transamerica Life Insurance Co., 2017 WL 3017596, 2017 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 109780 (C.D. Cal., July 6, 2017), involved a dispute between Transamerica and the owners and beneficiaries of 68 universal life insurance policies. Under the policies, premiums were deposited into an account for each policy, and each month, Transamerica withdrew a monthly deduction from each account and deposited a separate amount of interest. The amount in each policy’s account is known as the “Accumulation Value.” The plaintiffs alleged that Transamerica breached those insurance contracts, and did so in bad faith, by wrongfully increasing the monthly deduction rates (“MDR”) on the policies, and in doing so reduced the Accumulation Value of the policies.

Transamerica filed a motion to dismiss, claiming that its actions in calculating the MDR were proper and consistent with the plain language of the policies. The Court denied the motions to dismiss, in full, and in the process, confirmed that insurers can be liable for bad faith, even in the absence of a claim denial decision.

First, the court denied Transamerica’s motion to dismiss the breach of contract claim, finding that the policies did not give Transamerica “unfettered discretion” to set the MDR lower than the guaranteed maximum rate included in the policies.

Turning to the bad faith claim, the Court first ruled that it was not duplicative of the breach of contract claim because the plaintiffs alleged that Transamerica “exercised its discretion [in setting the MDR] in a way that was intentionally designed to unfairly frustrate the agreed purposes of the Policies.”

Next, the Court analyzed Transamerica’s argument that plaintiffs could not maintain a bad faith claim because they did not allege that Transamerica “withheld a benefit,” an allegation necessary to maintain a bad faith claim. See, e.g., Benavides v. State Farm General Insurance Co., 136 Cal. App. 4th 1241, 1250 (2006) (“[T]he essence of the tort of the implied covenant … is focused on the prompt payment of benefits under the insurance policy, there is no cause of action … when no benefits are due.”). The Court rejected Transamerica’s argument, explaining that if Transamerica improperly increased the MDR, that reduced plaintiffs’ Accumulation Value in the policies and forced them to pay increased premiums, and that impermissibly increasing premiums could constitute a breach of the implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing. See, e.g., Notrica v. State Comp. Ins. Fund, 70 Cal. App. 4th 911 (1999).

Typically, bad faith insurance claims are asserted only after an insurance company wrongfully denies a benefits claim. This case further confirms that an insurance company can be liable for bad faith damages for actions other than denying a claim. Basically, if the insurance company withholds anything of value under an insurance policy from an insured or causes the insured to unnecessarily pay increased premiums, they are potentially liable for bad faith damages.

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